Faktor Penyebab Hiperaktif Pada Anak

Sebelum membahas tentang faktor penyebab anak mengalami hiperaktif, kita harus pahami terlebih dahulu apa itu hiperaktif secara medis.

Hiperaktif adalah kondisi di mana anak cenderung lebih aktif dan tidak bisa tenang, atau tidak bisa diam. Tak hanya aktif, anak hiperaktif juga sering berkata kasar, teriak-teriak dan sulit dikendalikan. Menurut ahli psikolog, seseorang yang mengalami hiperaktif seringkali mengabaikan nasehat dari orangtua atau orang yang lebih tua.

Dalam istilah medis, perilaku anak yang hiperaktif bisa disebut sebagai Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

Setiap anak memiliki karakteristik yang berbeda-beda, ada sebagian anak yang cenderung kalem atau tidak terlalu aktif bergerak namun memilih untuk memperhatikan lingkungan sekitarnya sebagai pembelajarannya. Namun ada juga anak yang cenderung hiperaktif atau melakukan berbagai kegiatan tanpa kenal lelah.

Meski hal ini membuat anak terlihat selalu ceria dan rajin, ternyata anak hiperaktif dapat merugikan diri sendiri maupun orang lain.

Seperti sebelumnya yang telah saya jelaskan, anak hiperaktifanak hiperaktif cenderung tidak bisa tenang bahkan untuk hal-hal kecil, ia akan terus melakukan aktivitas, baik itu hanya bermain atau sekadar berlarian saja.

Anak hiperaktif cenderung lebih agresif, dan memiliki kesulitan dalam berkonsentrasi pada satu hal. Hal yang paling menjadi masalah bagi anak penyandang hiperaktivitas adalah mereka sulit bergaul dengan anak-anak lain.

Untuk waktu istirahat, anak hiperaktif cenderung kesulitan untuk tidur sehingga hal itu akan membuat matanya terlihat gelap atau secara medis disebut kantung mata. Dari kesulitan istirahat tersebut tak jarang anak hiperaktif mengalami sembelit atau sakit kepala.

Ada beberapa faktor yang diduga menjadi penyebab Hiperaktif atau diantaranya adalah:

  1. Keturunan

    Faktor keturunan menjadi penyebab utama, entah itu dari ibu, ayah, atau saudara dengan kondisi yang sama atau gangguan mental lain.

  2. Kondisi kelahiran

    Faktor penyebab kedua anak menyandang hiperaktif di pengaruhi oleh kelahiran prematur.

  3. Fungsi Otak

    Penyebab lain hiperaktif, adalah adanya kelainan pada struktur atau fungsi otak, seperti ketidakseimbangan kadar neurotransmiter dalam otak atau kinerjanya yang terganggu.

  4. Cidera otak

    Kerusakan otak bisa terjadi ketika anak masih di dalam kandungan atau pada usia dini.

  5. Gaya hidup ibu

    Kondisi ini biasanya terjadi karena seorang ibu menggunakan obat-obatan terlarang, mengonsumsi minuman keras, serta merokok selama masa kehamilan berlangsung.

  6. Lingkungan

    Paparan racun yang mencemari lingkungan sekitar, misalnya timah yang terdapat dalam cat dinding ruangan dan asap kendaraan bisa membuat anak mengalami hiperaktif, terutama di usia kanak-kanak.

  7. Ketidakseimbangan kimia pada otak

    Sebagian ahli meyakini, bahwa ketidakseimbangan kimiawi yang terdapat pada otak (neurotransmitter) juga menjadi faktor yang mempengaruhi perkembangan gejala hiperaktif atau ADHD.

Meski masih sedikit informasi mengenai penyebab ADHD atau hiperaktif pada anak. Namun, para ilmuwan mempercayai bahwa bahwa zat kimia yang terdapat di dalam otak memiliki pengaruh paling besar.

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